Paragraphs and essays can be developed in many different ways. Until recently, such interventions were small in scale and their impact limited. 11. Publicly funded research institutions also need such direction, and the objectives of sustainable development and environmental protection must be built into the mandates of the institutions that work in environmentally sensitive areas. Nairobi, 23 Sept 1986. There are growing global and regional pollution effects, such as in the more than 200 international river basins and the large number of shared seas. This is seldom the case, and there are usually winners and losers. The poverty line is that level of income below which an individual or household cannot afford on a regular basis the necessities of life. WCED Public Hearing Technologies are needed that produce 'social goods', such as improved air quality or increased product life, or that resolve problems normally outside the cost calculus of individual enterprises, such as the external costs of pollution or waste disposal. In the Third World, however, the gradual shift of the industrial base towards the basic material producing sectors is leading to an increase in the energy intensity of industrial production. Such systems as nuclear reactors, electric and other utility distribution networks, communication systems, and mass transportation are vulnerable if stressed beyond a certain point. Economic developments can accelerate social development by providing opportunities for underprivileged groups or by spreading education more rapidly. Thus: 18. The technologies of industrial countries are not always suited or easily adaptable to the socio-economic and environmental conditions of developing countries. Additionally, we will share valuable tips and tricks to help students of all ages impress their readers at the last moment. In fact, increased access to family planning services is itself a form of social development that allows couples, and women in particular, the right to self-determination. In the specific context of the development and environment crises of the 1980s, which current national and international political and economic institutions have not and perhaps cannot overcome, the pursuit of sustainable development requires: 82. The three common methods of organizing writing are chronological order, spatial order, and order of importance.You will learn more about these in Chapter 9 “Writing Essays: From Start to Finish”; however, you need to keep these methods of organization in mind as you plan how to arrange the information you have gathered in an outline. 36. What matters is the sincerity with which these goals are pursued and the effectiveness with which departures from them are corrected. Nonetheless, in large numbers of developing countries markets are very small; and for all developing countries high export growth, especially of non-traditional items, will also be necessary to finance imports, demand for which will be generated by rapid development. Every ecosystem everywhere cannot be preserved intact. The raw materials and energy of production processes are only partly converted to useful products. But let us leave those who want to live in the forest, who want to keep it as it is. How are individuals in the real world to be persuaded or made to act in the common interest? See Chapter 9. A forest may be destroyed by excessive felling because the people living there have no alternatives or because timber contractors generally have more influence then forest dwellers. In the long run, such a path may not be sustainable; it impoverishes many people and can increase pressures on the natural resource base through overcommercialized agriculture and through the marginalization of subsistence farmers. Rubber Tapper Council This shift is still under way in many developing countries. Perceived needs are socially and culturally determined, and sustainable development requires the promotion of values that encourage consumption standards that are within the bounds of the ecological possible and to which all can reasonably aspire. Hemily and M.N. 7/ FAO, Fuelwood Supplies in the Developing Countries, Forestry Paper No. With minerals and fossil fuels, the rate of depletion and the emphasis on recycling and economy of use should be calibrated to ensure that the resource does not run out before acceptable substitutes are available. 8. This is best secured by decentralizing the management of resources upon which local communities defend, and giving these communities an effective say over the use f these resources. The role of public policy is to ensure, through incentives and disincentives, that commercial organizations find it worthwhile to take fuller account of environmental factors in the technologies they develop. From A/42/427. The fulfilment of all these tasks will require the reorientation of technology the key link between humans and nature. Ensuring a Sustainable Level of Population, 5. In the developing world, mostly in the Third World, we realize that the main problem we have is that we do not have employment opportunities, and most of these people who are unemployed move from rural areas and they migrate into the cities and those who remain behind always indulge in processes - for example charcoal burning - and all this leads to deforestation. If, however, the aim is to ensure that the world is well on its way towards sustainable development by the beginning of the next century, it is necessary to aim at a minimum of 3 per cent per capita national income growth and to pursue vigorous redistributive policies. A communications gap has kept environmental, population, and development assistance groups apart for too long, preventing us from being aware of our common interest and realizing our combined power. But the process must be accelerated to reduce per capita consumption and encourage a shift to non polluting sources and technologies. The law alone cannot enforce the common interest. Environmental risks arising from technological and developmental decisions impinge on individuals and areas that have little or no influence on those decisions. Most important, effective participation in decision-making processes by local communities can help them articulate and effectively enforce their common interest. Discover grammar tips, writing help, and fun English language facts. Meeting essential needs depends in part on achieving full growth potential, and sustainable development clearly requires economic growth in places where such needs are not being met. 71. These inter sectoral connections create patterns of economic and ecological interdependence rarely reflected in the ways in which policy is made. The accumulation of knowledge and the development of technology can enhance the carrying capacity of the resource base. 22. This will require policy changes in all countries, with respect both to their own development and to their impacts on other nations' development possibilities. (See Chapter 5.). WCED Public Hearing an administrative system that is flexible and has the capacity for self-correction. Today's interventions are more drastic in scale and impact, and more threatening to life-support systems both locally and globally. A major purpose of large system design should be to make the consequences of failure or sabotage less serious. Between 1985 and 2000 the labour force in developing countries will increase by nearly 800 million, and new livelihood opportunities will have to be generated for 60 million persons every year./5 The pace and pattern of economic development have to generate sustainable work opportunities on this scale and at a level of productivity that would enable poor households to meet minimum consumption standards. 34. U.S. Based Development, Environment, Population NGOs Environmental concern is common to both sides. The number of years required to bring the poverty ratio down from 50 to 10 per cent ranges from: 18-24 years if per capita income grows at 3 per cent, 26-36 years if it grown at 2 per cent, and. Economic and social development can and should be mutually reinforcing. 15. The integration of economic and ecological factors into the law and into decision making systems within countries has to be matched at the international level. If that is taken care of, at least one step of the problem is resolved. 31. It must also work to remove disabilities from disadvantaged groups, many of whom live in ecologically vulnerable areas, such as many tribal groups in forests, desert nomads, groups in remote hill areas, and indigenous peoples of the Americas and Australasia. And, of course, we are the last to be consulted about how, when, and where developments should take place in order to assure continuing harmony for the seventh generation. As for non-renewable resources, like fossil fuels and minerals, their use reduces the stock available for future generations. Nairobi, 23 Sept 1986. And the majority of people in the South do not want short-term overpass solutions. Studies done before 1960 that assumed an exponentially growing demand did not envisage a problem until well into the next century./12 since then, world consumption of most metals has remained nearly constant, which suggests that the exhaustion of non-fuel minerals is even more distant. WCED Public Hearing For example, foreign trade in commodities makes issues of carrying capacities and resource scarcities an international concern. In my area, we have about 14-16 native products that we extract from the forest, besides all the other activities we have. Second, in low-income developing countries the surplus that can be skimmed off for redistribution is available only from the wealthier groups. Sustainability requires views of human needs and well-being that incorporate such non-economic variables as education and health enjoyed for their own sake, clean air and water, and the protection of natural beauty. These changes are required in all countries as part of a package of measures to maintain the stock of ecological capital, to improve the distribution of income, and to reduce the degree of vulnerability to economic crises. Sustainable development requires that such fragmentation be overcome. For many of us, however, the last few centuries have meant a major loss of control over our lands and waters. 40. And we want to take this opportunity of having so many people here gathered with the same objective in mind to defend our habitat, the conservation of forest, of tropical forest. Thus the abandonment of a hydro project because it will disturb a rare ecological system could be a measure of progress, not a setback to development./4 Nevertheless, in some cases, sustainability considerations will involve a rejection of activities that are financially attractive in the short run. 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